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Material Insights

The following are my insights on materials from professional organizations, including the AHA and AAS. The AHA gives the reader the opportunity to answer their own questions by coming up with questions and then giving accompanying sources. I was surprised to discover though that most of these sources cannot be accessed because the links are invalid. Also, sources do seem to be in the wrong place. For example, I found a map of China during the warring states period in with the imperialism section. While there may have been imperialism back then, it was many, many centuries before the western countries engagement in Chinese imperialism.

One time-period appropriate link that did work led me to a letter to Queen Victoria. In this letter, the Chinese argue that, since the foreigners were taking some of their wealth, the Chinese should receive some of the foreigners wealth. Furthermore, they argue that the opium is detrimental to the Chinese people. Yet, because this is a diplomatic letter, the Chinese specifically state that they do not think that the English mean to purposefully poison the Chinese people. They further mention that opium is banned in Great Britain, showing that the British know of its dangers. Thus, the Chinese argument is that the British simply don’t care about what they’re doing to the Chinese people.

It is my opinion that the arguments the Chinese made in this letter are valid. However, looking back, there was no way that a distant Queen Victoria, focused on enhancing the British empire, would stop the opium trade. It is only in recent years that the idea of universal human rights, regardless of race, ethnicity, religion, or country of origin, has gained mass popularity. She would have been blocked by her natural ethnocentrism, which would tell her that the Chinese were sub-human and thus not worthy of consideration. What’s more, arguments were made at the time that addiction was the fault of those who were addicted, not of those who had gotten them addicted. This has only been partially refuted in recent years, with widespread media coverage of the heroin epidemic.

Also, at that time (and, to some extent, now), the world was ruled by a “might makes right” policy. China had lived in centuries of isolation and thus did not have a large army and navy. Also, it did not yet have access to Western inventions, including military ones, like cannons and guns. Had these above not been true, perhaps the Chinese could have fought off the European imperialists.

Information courtesy of:

n.d. “Modern History Sourcebook: Comissioner LIn: Letter to Queen Victoria, 1839.” Fordham University. Accessed December 1, 2020. https://sourcebooks.fordham.edu/mod/1839lin2.asp.

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Useful tips for Studying

For reading-intensive classes, one should always be sure to complete the assignments as soon as possible. Putting things off never pays because, inevitably something unexpected always comes in at the last moment to create additional work. Also, the sensation one gets at the completion of a task is far more satisfying than the feeling of dread and anticipation one gets from putting things off (procrastinating.) This is particularly true of projects, which may require you to order books from the local library. Also, it is important to make sure that you complete the blog post (or whatever the assignment is) right after doing the reading. Otherwise, you may forget what you read or get it confused with something else from this or another class.

As we all know it is impossible to read every single word in every single assignment. My advice to skim the parts that contain information you already know or don’t find too difficult, but read the parts with difficult or new information thoroughly. In the case of this class, because I didn’t know much about China, I found myself thoroughly reading a lot of the information. Along similar lines, I suggest reading more closely when one is reading for a project, especially when the class is one where one will have a sequel.

Against my personal policy, I had, for the most part, to wait for the due date to complete my weekly assignments because I was busy with my medical problems and other classes. That said, I NEVER waited until the evening, which would be the absolute last minute. It’s worth mentioning that doing this in the evening would likely result in nightmares. It is my opinion that there is nothing so likely to cause nightmares as hearing about bloody rebellions, revolutions, racism, and the outright greed and ethnocentrism that drove colonialism and imperialism. I maintain that it is far better to use print sources than online sources because one can use highlighters and post-it notes on print sources. The reader would be stunned to learn how much paper and ink I’ve used this semester, admittedly spread between my classes. Don’t bother to use color-coded highlighting. That is just too much work and takes the attention away from what you’re reading.

I do have one more suggestion- stay in one position while you’re doing your homework. I’ve found that getting up to make or eat food or use the bathroom distracts me from what I’m doing and getting back into “the swing of things” takes away critical time. Best of luck to all of you with your homework!

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Human Rights

This week’s readings focused on China’s human rights violations, specifically Tiananmen Square and Tibet. In terms of Tiananmen Square, the government sent the military to kill unarmed peaceful protestors and civilians. Thanks to the lack of intercountry information innate in Communist countries, nobody actually knows how many people were killed in this atrocity. In terms of Tibet, China expanded into a contested area and killed and suppressed ethnic Tibetans. The Dalai Lama (the leader of Bhutan and religious leader of Buddhism) spoke out against this and tried to stop it, but did not succeed.

One can only do what President Clinton did- separate the economic desire to trade with China from the moral disgust of China’s human rights violations. The only way to deal with it is through education. We need to circulate underground pamphlets teaching the Chinese people the drawbacks of communism and the benefits and drawbacks of democracy and other forms of government. That way, the people will do their own fighting and we won’t have to be directly involved. Maybe we teach them the benefits of peaceful protesting and smuggle in cameras, but we don’t arm them because, in the event of an information leak, we don’t want China to bomb us.

The big divide between China and the West stems from imperialism, with China parlaying any and all of our accusations with their accusation that we are evil and just want to take them over again. It’s really a problem that we inherited from our forefathers. (As an aside, I say that, given that I was born decades after imperialism ended, I really hate inheriting this problem. To me, it smacks of Black people resenting me just because my forefathers may have owned their forefathers. I’m not responsable for what my ancestors did.) Our problem is that China won’t acknowledge their human rights violations or give their people the freedom to think for themselves, so we can’t introduce them to the world outside of China and to other ideas, like democracy. Of course, we want to be very careful not to force them into democracy. That would make us imperialists all over again.

Yes, actually, the US President should have historians for all major countries on speed dial. China doesn’t want interference because it has, for millennia, viewed itself as superior to and independent of all the rest of the world and resented centuries of Western imperialism and interference. The only way we could get them to openly allow us to talk to and “interfere with” them is to gain their trust. I regret to say that I don’t know exactly how to do this.

Image courtesy of: Google Images

Information courtesy of:

Moïse Edwin E. Modern China: A History Third ed. Harlow, England: Pearson/Longman, 2008.

Dillon, Michael. China: A Modern History. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010.

Radio broadcast (and transcript) from Radio Beijing early on June 4 (The shortwave Radio Audio Archive)

“Deng Xiaoping’s Explanation fo the crackdown, June 9, 1989” In The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection. Third ed. Edited by Janet Chen et. al. W. W. Norton & Company, 2014.

“Dalai Lama and “Ahimsa: for Tibet: The Nobel Peace Prize Lecture, December 10, 1989” In The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection. Third ed. Edited by Janet Chen et. al. W. W. Norton & Company, 2014.

“President Clinton Reevaluates Human Rights as element of China Policy, May 27, 1994” In The Search for Modern China: A Documentary Collection. Third ed. Edited by Janet Chen et. al. W. W. Norton & Company, 2014.

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Opening up

This week, I read option one. It took China decades to open up from being a closed Communist nation to being a politically Communist but economically open nation. The first steps were taken in the 1970s when Nixon went to China and then a Chinese leader named Deng Xiaoping returned the visit. I have to say that I found the idea of a Chinese Communist enjoying cowboy things, like lassooing, to be remarkably interesting, unexpected, and diplomatic. The story about Fred Hayes showing Deng the latest in NASA technology reminded me of when the US astronauts and USSR astronauts rendevouzed and shook hands in space during that same decade.

Learning about there being a (nominally) Democratic (but really dictatorial) army in combat with an impromptu Communist army composed solely of civilians and warlords’ armies, I was reminded of the civil war between the whites and the reds in the developing USSR. All of the different armies in China had different bases, leading to, at one point, Nanjing being the center of a developing China, thanks to the Guomindang government. However, this government had serious internal problems and thus could not expand into rural areas. Also, this government’s leader’s subordinates tended to betray him as soon as possible. Once he tried to expand into northern China, they became separate and competing warlord generals. As strange as it may seem to a modern reader, during the years (1927-1937) when this government was in power, Chinese Communists were actually very reduced in numbers.

Despite the first steps towards peace between the Communist and Democratic nations being taken in the 1970s, its outcome would not be seen until the 1990s when the Soviet Union fell and Hong Kong and Macau were finally returned to Chinese rule after a century under of British rule. This foreign rule was started thanks to imperialism, meaning that imperialism’s effects lasted into the modern era and outlasted Communism, the East’s response to imperialism.

Most importantly, after the deaths of the two highest Communist leaders, Mao and Zhou, the art of negotiating left Chinese politics. As such, the Right won, leading to events that cut short the official mourning for these men. One of these was what, we, in the West call the Tiananmen Square protests. After this, without the support of their beloved Mao, the Big Four, who had been promoted just as a result of their personal connections to Mao and not as a result of their work experience, lost their jobs. The moderates tried to get technically-gifted leaders rewarded, but this was inconsistent with the radicals’ viewpoint of continuing pure Communism. One of them was Deng Xiaoping, who would later come to the US.

The US finally began to import Chinese goods in 1979, but, by 1982, China started trying to improve its relations with the USSR. This eliminated any idea of China and the US becoming allies. In 1979, to move forwards economically (which was a large problem for poverty-stricken China), families were given responsibility for either a plot of land or a business. It worked very well and introduced the incentive of personal profit, although people still could not actually buy the goods. This put China well on the track towards economic success.

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Nixon and Pandas

This week, I read the Pandas article. I know that it is a little short, but I figured that I simply HAD to know about it. Clearly from these articles, we have established a relationship with China because it benefits us both economically. However, we have not become one of their closest friends because they won’t let lots of their most precious national symbol come to our country.

The main article said that no more western incursions would be made into Indochina. Given that this promise was made during the Vietnam War, whose purpose was to stop the spread of Communism in that same geographical area, it is clearly an empty promise meant to reassure Mao Zedong and his fellow Communist party members, who were still leery of imperialism. After all, this speech was made only about a quarter of a century after Japan’s attempts to take over China and since India’s and Burma’s revolutions to overthrow British rule. Also, this was just about fifteen or twenty years after the Chinese gave emotional support to the American Civil Rights movement, who were also trying to throw off the classist imperialist system.

One does also have to wonder why exactly Nixon mentioned several American customs, like freedom of the press. One would certainly think that the Communist leaders would already have known those things. Thus, one assumes that this reiteration of them was partially to emphasize American culture and what he perceived to be its strengths.

I’d say that American zoos should try using modern reproduction methods to gain more pandas. For example, instead of trying to get one from China, they could try using in vitro fertilization. As a matter of fact, they could try putting the embryos into not just a female panda, but also a more common bear, like a black bear or grizzly bear. Such techniques have been used successfully in terms of cloning and trying to bring back species who literally only have a handful of grown females remaining. The host species just has to be physically similar, not the same. And although I know that financing is tight, one does have to wonder just how the New York City mayor thinks that he can possibly have something resembling a complete zoo without pandas. After all, they are literally the symbol of China, a very ancient and strong country. It’s like having a zoo without giraffes and zebras (to represent Africa), camels (to represent the Middle East), penguins (to represent the mistaken view that they all come from Antarctica), or gorillas and chimpanzees (to represent our closest genetic neighbors.)

Image courtesy of: Google Images

Information courtesy of:

Richard Nixon and Zhou Enlai, “Toasts at a Banquet Honoring the Premier“, February 25, 1972.

Richard Nixon: Speeches, Writings, Documents. Edited by Rick Perlstein. James Madison Library in American Politics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2010.

Cunningham, Maura Elizabeth. “Panda-monium at the Bronx Zoo: A History“. Mauracunningham.org. February 8, 2018.

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Blacks and China

A Communist Chinese party leader meeting with W.E.B. DuBois, one of the leaders of the American Civil Rights Movement

This week’s readings focus on the perhaps surprising relationship by which Black Power and Civil Rights activists, like W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Malcolm X, communicated and commiserated with the newly Communist People’s Republic of China. Although on opposite sides of the world and consisting of different races, both suffered from the socioeconomic effects of Western imperialism. These effects were associated with western capitalism and were part of what led the Chinese Communists to come to power in the first place. (Although it is worthy mentioning that, ironically, the whole idea of Communism originated in the western nation of Germany.) These socioeconomic effects included the imposition of a racial system where whites were at the top and thus had access to greater educational and employment opportunities and Blacks and Chinese had no ability to resist this. In the case of Blacks, they were forcibly taken from their home countries and brought (via slavery) to the New World, while the Chinese stayed in their country of origin, which was invaded by the western powers. This shared commiseration in the face of a common enemy made these two groups into diplomatic friends.

Interestingly, this shared misery at an enemy expanded to include Gandhi, who, although Indian, was fighting against British rule of his nation and ludicrous salt taxes. This was also true of the Cuban revolutionary Fidel Castro, who fought against the lack of good jobs for Cubans and the abundance of them for Americans. So, in essence, revolutions, some of them Communist, which shook the world from the 1930s-1960s, were in essence a result of long-simmering antagonism resulting from colonialism and imperialism.

It was only in 1963 that the Communist Chinese began to give up on the idea of peacefully overthrowing these western ideals and began to physically fight them. This would contribute to the nuclear era, with China adding to the nuclear warfare threats made by the US and USSR.

In the years since these seemingly amazing relationships began, the efforts to promote “country x for the citizens born in country x” have both succeeded and failed. In China, western manufacturing owners bring their business to the Chinese. They employ Chinese, but the actual companies are American. In each of these countries, racism towards the darker-skinned is still rampant. This is a legacy of when western Europeans taught the world that white was the best color to be.

Image courtesy of: Google Images

Information courtesy of:

Johnson M.D. “From Peace to the Panthers: PRC Engagement with African-American Transnational Networks, 1949-1979.” Past and Present 218, no. Suppl.8 (2013): 233–57.

“Statement by Mao Tse-Tung, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, in Support of the Afro-American Struggle Against Violent Repression, April 16, 1968” In Afro Asia: Revolutionary Political and Cultural Connections between African Americans and Asian Americans. Book Collections on Project Muse. Edited by Bill Mullen and Fred Wei-han Ho, 94-96. Durham: Duke University Press, 2008.

Brown, Keisha and Ruodi Duan. “Teaching China through Black History“. Fairbank Center Blog, Jan. 30, 2019.

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Chinese Communists

Mao Zedong, Leader of Communist China

I read option one, Edgar Snow on Red China, this week.

This week’s readings dealt with America’s initial divided beliefs regarding Mao Zedong. Some believed that he was good for China. Specifically, some talked about how Mao was “modernizing” China by erecting skyscrapers, department stores, and teaching children English and music. Also, no traditional Chinese clothing is depicted, so all of the Chinese people are wearing western clothing. (All of this shows ethnocentrism because the Chinese had previously got along perfectly well without these things. So long as they had a modern army and enough goods to trade with westerners, the Chinese, as a whole, were just fine the way they were. Westerners just loved seeing these things perpetuated in China because westerners originated and used these things. I mean, after all, what greater flattery is there than imitation?)

This week’s readings also mentioned how, since Mao had read Western works, like The Communist Manifesto, and those by Greek authors, he was well-educated. This was something that was not well known by most Westerners because little news made it through the Iron Curtain or, thanks to the Kuomintang, was allowed out of Red China. (Although it is worth mentioning that these writings take place in the 1920s-1930s, prior to China’s Communist Revolution in 1946.) So, these writings would have been fallen on uninterested American ears. (These ears were too busy dealing with the Great Depression and the Dust Bowl and worrying about Hitler and Mussolini’s rise to power to worry about what was happening in a non-white nation so far away.) Remember, most Americans still didn’t want the Chinese in America (the Chinese Exclusion Act), so why would they care what happened in mainland China, so long as we could continue trading with them? Remember, although the western powers threw their weight behind the anti-Soviet white army, the Cold War wouldn’t start until after World War Two.

Although this is from a different period in history, another section of one of this week’s readings finally cleared up (for me) when the racist idea of “yellow skin” finally got started. Apparently it started in the 18th century when missionaries (this time, not Jesuit), returned from China with disparaging news of the Chinese. As a matter of fact, these new missionaries’ views of the Chinese were so disparaging that they quickly left China in order to train Chinese in European missions. Thus, more missionaries were created. I’d like to know- did the idea of “slanted eyes” come with the “yellow skin” idea, or did it develop separately?

Image courtesy of: Google Images

Information courtesy of:

Spence, Jonathan D. To Change China: Western Advisers in China, 1620-1960

Bethune, Norman, and Larry Hannant. The Politics of Passion: Norman Bethune’s Writing and Art. Cel – Canadian Publishers Collection

“China’s Dictator Kidnapped”. Narrated by Westbrook Van Voorhis, In March of Time, Volume 3, Episode 5 (New York, NY: HBO, 1936), 10 minutes. https://video-alexanderstreet-com.muhlenberg.idm.oclc.org/watch/china-s-dictator-kidnapped

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Boxer Rebellion

I read option 2, which featured the book “Student Ambassadors: Patriots or Traitors?” Before I say anything else, I have to say that the story of a teenage boy studying very hard to be accepted into an American college made me think of The Good Earth series by Pearl S. Buck (who was featured in one of the optional readings for this week.)

In particular, this reading mentioned how poorly the Chinese students were treated (due to the atmosphere of racism surrounding the Chinese Exclusion Act) once they got to the United States. Also, that act was still in place when this book was written, thus resulting in only merchants and students being allowed to come from China. This also resulted, at least in the late twentieth century, in the racist idea that Asians are smarter than white people. This leads to higher academic and salary expectations of Asian-Americans and increased expectations of children in the Asian American community. At home, despite the fact that the Boxers had provided money for these students’ scholarships, they were considered to be traitors to the Boxer Chinese ideal of China for the Chinese. This was especially true because they were going to the United States, a Western nation, literally one of the ones who took over part of China, helping to contribute to the Boxer Rebellion. So, they were stuck between two worlds, with only their dreams and other people, like themselves, to guide them. It’s really much like the story of most immigrants.

The driving factors in narrating a story are the protagonist and antagonist, how each relates to the world around them, and how others relate to him/her. The time period and the physical location are critical to the setting. Similarly, the person’s race, ethnicity, country of origin, gender, age, personality, and physical, emotional, and mental behavior are critical to how the reader understands the protagonist. The same is true of any truly good antagonist.

One factor in anything academic is how much previous knowledge and experience one has had with the subject matter. In this case, last week’s readings allowed me to better understand the causes of the racism that the students experienced, forcing them to live in bad housing in Chinatown, even if they could afford better. More factors which we can never escape from are how the atmosphere we grew up in views our subject matter (implicit biasis) and how much (if at all) we have learned to conquer this.

Image courtesy of: Google Images

Information courtesy of: Bieler, Stacey. “Chapter 6: Student Ambassadors” “Patriots” or “Traitors”?: A History of American-Educated Chinese Students, 199-250

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The Chinese Exclusion Act in America

I knew a little about the treatment of the Chinese-Americans from a series of lectures given by a Harvard professor in the spring and from the history of public health class I took a few years ago at Muhlenberg. However, I didn’t learn anything about it in my high school history classes, which is really an outrage. It mainly happened all the way across the country, but that doesn’t negate the suffering and the lessons that can be learned from it. Also, our Eastern states participated in it by agreeing to it in the House of Representatives.

The outdated racist thinking driving the Chinese Exclusion Act soured China on the United States. Since we still haven’t really resolved this issue, and since we still throw racist slurs at Chinese, especially ones who are either very successful or, much more rarely, very unsuccessful, the Chinese undoubtedly still look at us as a racist nation.

Most importantly, our democracy not working to protect their American bretheren may well have set the Chinese on a path away from democracy, towards communism. That, as we know, has been a major stumbling block for Chinese-American relations for decades. (This to the point that President Nixon’s visit to China was hotly contested and front-page news.) Also, the Korean and Vietnam wars, with tens of thousands of American casualties, drove a further wedge between the East and the West. After all, the Chinese (and Soviets) spread communism to North Korea and Vietnam and helped the communist insurgents there in their fight against democracy. What isn’t commonly known (or thought of) by westerners is that the Chinese at least claimed that they were saving these countries from the yokes of western imperialism. Thus, in these wars, the United States’ attempt to promote democracy was portrayed by the Chinese as being just more western imperialism.

Despite this, like under the Qing empire, China continues to be a major trade partner of the United States. The big difference is why. In the 19th century, China offered the world lots of unique products, like silk and spices. In the late 20th and 21st centuries, China’s main contribution has been very underpaid workers (a product of Communism), thus allowing the West to buy Chinese products cheaper than their identical American products. This has proved to be a problem among the lower paid American laborers who used to make these products and are now unemployed. Noticeably, this is the same group of people who originally had the problem with the Chinese-American laborers “taking their jobs.” Like then, when these white American laborers limited the number of ships (or at least who and what they could carry) coming from China, they are now advocating for a high tariff on all Chinese-made products, for the sake of saving their jobs.

Knowledge of the Chinese Exclusion Act has changed my view of what Asian-Americans are like. I did think that Asian-Americans tended to be smarter than other races, but I didn’t know that that was the result of immigration restriction. I also knew that they had special schools (which a former friend of mine used to attend), in addition to regular schools. But, I didn’t know that that was because those Asians who do make it to America tend to be doctors and other scholars and therefore have a great respect for knowledge.

As in any case where diplomacy is involved, greater cultural understanding would be helpful. In this particular case, it would be wonderful to understand that Asian-Americans, just like white Americans, want to do the best they can to support their families and increase their financial and social standing. Like other immigrants, if they have family and/or friends in China, they send money home. Like other minorities, they tend to stick together, or at least know of other members in their communities, even if they are not friends with them. That’s a way of coping with having so many white people around and having racism aimed at them. The statistics showing that Asian-Americans tend to have higher salaries and lower rates of unemployment than whites aren’t helpful because they don’t point out that, for many of the decades when immigration was much more open to lower paid people, the Chinese weren’t allowed to come. Even 125 years on, these effects are still felt because the lower paid workers have been subjugated to a lottery since they’ve been allowed in.

Image courtesy of: Googe Images

Facts courtesy of: “The Chinese Exclusion Act”. Directed by Burns, Ric and Li-Shin Yu. Public Broadcasting Service, 2018

Molina, Natalia. “Chapter 1: Interlopers in the Land of Sunshine: Chinese Disease Carriers, Launderers, and Vegetable Peddlers”. In Fit to Be Citizens?: Public Health and Race in Los Angeles, 1879-1939. American Crossroads, 20. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006

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The Taiping Rebellion

The Taiping Rebellion

This week we learned about the Taiping Rebellion, which took place around 1840s-1860s. In it, Hoong, a man who repeatedly failed his government exams, decided to claim he was the other son of God and use Christianity as a recruiting method. This last was rather unique, as previous rebellions had used Buddhism, not Christianity. As much as you would think that the West would be thrilled with this, they weren’t. They were so dissatisfied with the heresy of there being a second son of God that they decided to side with the Qing government instead. So, they helped to modernize the Qing army by equipping them with guns and cannons (thus taking away the advantage of Medieval fortresses) and teaching them how to use these modern tools.

The book reviews taught me that history is not just a set of facts. It is how we view and interpret this bunch of facts- especially what importance we put on them, knowing what we do about what was then the future and is now the past. What’s more, history, like every other discipline, is interpreted through the eyes of humans. Every human has a different life history and different prejudices and thus a different opinion and interpretation. Thus, a man or woman with a more liberal outlook, perhaps because he/she lives in a democracy like the United States and not a communist regime (like modern-day China) is more likely to be sympathetic to Hoong’s cause than a more conservative person.

In this case, the facts have been shaped by the need to portray Hoong’s followers as miscreants fighting against the legitimate government. What isn’t commonly said is why these men decided to fight against this government. Had they won, not only would these reasons be commonly taught, but the Qing government would likely be shown as more evil and incompetent than it was. (The Qing government was actually pretty competent. It just didn’t maintain a large or modern enough standing army.) Remember- history is written by the victor. Due to ethnocentrism, this is especially true if race or ethnicity was involved, as was the case between the Manchu Qing empire and the Chinese and Hakka and other minority groups from Southwest China.

So, depending on which view the book was written from and which view the reviewer felt was correct, the reviewer may or may not have agreed with the book, thus explaining the wildly different reviews.

Image from:

Google Images

Information from:

Melvin Bragg and guests “The Taiping Rebellion“. In Our Time, BBC Radio 4, Feb. 24 2011

Platt, Stephen R. Autumn in the Heavenly Kingdom : China, the West, and the Epic Story of the Taiping Civil War. First Vintage books ed. New York: Vintage Books, 2012

Sunquist, Scott W. Review of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire, by Thomas H. Reilly. Church History 74, no. 4 (2005): 900

Bohr, Richard P. Review of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire, by Thomas H. Reilly. Monumenta Serica 53 (2005): 514

Esherick, Joseph W. Review of The Taiping Heavenly Kingdom: Rebellion and the Blasphemy of Empire, by Thomas H. Reilly. The American Historical Review 110, no. 5 (2005): 1498